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Frauen in Forschung & Technologie
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Gender Pay Gap

pwc; "Time to talk: What has to change for women at work"; pwc; 2018

Our 2018 survey of 3,627 professional women from around the world tells this story of determination, hope and frustration. But it also gives a clear indication of three key essential elements that business leaders must focus on to advance gender equality and help women’s career advancement as they lead their enterprises into the 21st century.

Lillemaier, Sarah; Der "Comparable Worth"-Index als Instrument zur Analyse des Gender Pay Gap: Arbeitsanforderungen und Belastungen in Frauen- und Männerberufen; SI Working Paper, No. 205, Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI); Düsseldorf; 2016

Das Working Paper präsentiert mit dem "Comparable Worth"(CW)-Index einen neu entwickelten Maßstab, mit dem inhaltlich unterschiedliche Berufe geschlechtsneutral hinsichtlich ihrer Arbeitsanforderungen und Belastungen verglichen werden können. Der Index basiert auf Daten der BIBB/BAuA-Erwerbstätigenbefragung und ist geeignet, gleichwertige Berufe statistisch zu identifizieren. Erste Analysen mit dem CW-Index zeigen, dass weiblich dominierte Berufe - gemessen an ihren Anforderungen und Belastungen - gegenwärtig häufig unterdurchschnittlich bezahlt werden. Das trifft beispielsweise auch auf die "typisch weiblichen" Care-Berufe zu. Dieser Befund liefert weitere statistische Hinweise, die für eine gesellschaftliche Abwertung von "Frauenberufen" sprechen. Bislang konnte diese sogenannte "Devaluationshypothese" nicht direkt statistisch untersucht werden. Mit dem neu entwickelten CW-Index wird diese Forschungslücke ansatzweise geschlossen.

Christina Boll, Julian Leppin, Anja Rossen, André Wolf; Magnitude and Impact Factors of the Gender Pay Gap in EU Countries; European Commission; 2016

This study undertakes a comprehensive analysis of the sources of wage differences between male and female workers in Europe. Its main purpose is to shed light on the interplay of so far neglected explanatory factors as well as to reveal country differences in the roles of these factors. One specific point of interest concerns the impact of gender differences in the incidence of overeducation.

Accenture; Getting to Equal 2017; 2017

Women are a vital resource in the race to fill the global demand for talent, but they remain woefully underrepresented in the workforce and continue to earn less than men. As the gender pay gap closes at a glacial pace, it robs women, families and communities of income, skills and education and deepens social inequality.

The gender employment gap: Challenges and solutions; Mascherini, Massimiliano, Bisello, Martina  Rioboo Leston, Irene; Eurofond; 2016

The gender employment gap is defined by Eurostat as the difference between the employment rates of men and women aged 20–64. Hidden behind this indicator is the reality of millions of women who are unable to participate in the labour market. These include women who would like to have a job but who cannot take one due to family responsibilities, women who cannot secure a job under the right conditions, one that offers fair treatment, good job quality and equal pay, and women who seek to avoid segregation into the traditional ‘women’s’ sectors.

Closing the Gender Gap - Advancing Equality through International Institutions; Adams, Barbara, Judd, Karen, Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung New York Office; 2017

The economic system of neoliberalism does not take into consideration the disadvantages faced every day by women, especially by those from the most vulnerable sections of society: women of color, working women, women in poverty, migrants, and elders. In fact, it rather deepens existing inequalities and power disparities. Austerity measures taken against vital services—such as childcare, transportation, health, education, and other social services—affect women in particular, exacerbating the differences imposed by a gendered division of labor and relegating women’s role in the formal economy.

Teow, Yong Jing; Jain, Shivangi; PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP; Februar 2017

PwC’s annual Women in Work Index, which measures levels of female economic empowerment across 33 OECD countries based on five key indicators, shows that over the long-term the UK has surpassed the average performance of both the OECD and G7 economies due to increasing female employment rates, a narrowing of the gender pay gap and a reduction of the gap between male and female labour force participation rates.

Kimberly Bayard; Judith Hellerstein; David Neumark; Kenneth Troske; New Evidence on Sex Segregation and Sex Differences in Wages from Matched Employee-Employer Data; University of Chicago; Journal of Labor Economics, 2003, vol. 21, no. 4

We use new matched employer-employee data to estimate the contributions of sex segregation and wage differences by sex within occupation, industry, establishment, and occupation-establishment cells to the overall sex gap in wages. In contrast to earlier data used to study this question, our data cover all industries and occupations across all regions of the United States. We find that segregation of women into lower-paying occupations, industries, establishments, and occupations within establishments accounts for a sizable fraction of the sex gap in wages. Nonetheless, approximately one-half of the sex gap in wages remains attributable to the individual’s sex.

Buser, Thomas; Niederle, Muriel; Oosterbeek, Hessel; Gender, Competitiveness, and Career Choices; Oxford University Press; The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2014), 1409–1447. doi:10.1093/qje/qju009

Gender differences in competitiveness have been hypothesized as a potential explanation for gender differences in education and labor market outcomes. We examine the predictive power of a standard laboratory experimental measure of competitiveness for the later important choice of academic track of secondary school students in the Netherlands. Although boys and girls display similar levels of academic ability, boys choose substantially more prestigious academic tracks, where more prestigious tracks are more math- and scienceintensive. Our experimental measure shows that boys are also substantially more competitive than girls. We find that competitiveness is strongly positively correlated with choosing more prestigious academic tracks even conditional on academic ability. Most important, we find that the gender difference in competitiveness accounts for a substantial portion (about 20%) of the gender difference in track choice.

Simon, Fietze; Holst, Elke; Tobsch, Verena; Germany’s Next Top Manager: Does Personality Explain the Gender Career Gap?; IZA DP No. 5110; August 2010

The higher the hierarchical level, the fewer women are represented in management positions. Many studies have focused on the influence of human capital and other “objective” factors on career opportunities to explain this phenomenon. We are now looking at the impact of self-reported personality traits on gender differences in career chances and compare women and men in management positions and other white-collar employees in Germany’s private sector 2007. While bivariate results based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) show that there are significant gender differences in personality traits, multivariate estimations and the decomposition of the gender career gap clearly indicate that these differences cannot account for gender differences in career opportunities. The decomposition shows that only 8.6 percent of the inequality of career chances between women and can be explained by differences in personality. Nevertheless, personality traits might indeed play a role, albeit more indirectly: Some of the stronger career effects, such as long working hours, and labour market segregation, can also reflect differences in personality traits. These might have been influenced at an early stage by a gender-biased environment. Our results strongly stress the need for a gender-neutral environment outside and inside companies in order to enforce equal career opportunities for women and men.

Goldin, Claudia; A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter; American Economic Review 2014, 104(4): 1091–1119

The converging roles of men and women are among the grandest advances in society and the economy in the last century. These aspects of the grand gender convergence are figurative chapters in a history of gender roles. But what must the “last” chapter contain for there to be equality in the labor market? The answer may come as a surprise. The solution does not (necessarily) have to involve government intervention and it need not make men more responsible in the home (although that wouldn’t hurt). But it must involve changes in the labor market, especially how jobs are structured and remunerated to enhance temporal flexibility. The gender gap in pay would be considerably reduced and might vanish altogether if firms did not have an incentive to disproportionately reward individuals who labored long hours and worked particular hours. Such change has taken off in various sectors, such as technology, science, and health, but is less apparent in the corporate, financial, and legal worlds. (JEL J3, J16, J22, J24, J31, J33, N3)

Goldin, Claudia; How to Achieve Gender Equality; Milken Institute Review Third Quarter 2015

It’s no secret that, on average, women – even those with equivalent education and experience – typically earn less than men. The ratio of the average (mean) earnings of female workers (fulltime, full-year, 25 to 69 years old) to that of their male counterparts was 0.72 in 2010. The pay ratio of median earners (those at the 50th percentile) for the same groups was 0.78. But that is not the whole story.

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Nivorozhkina, Ludmilla; Nivorozhkin, Anton (2008): The Wage Costs of Motherhood. Which Mothers are Better Off and Why. In: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (Hg.): IAB Discussion Paper 26. Beiträge zum wissenschaftlichen Dialog aus dem Insitut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung. Nürnberg

In this paper we analyze how motherhood affects women´s wages. Our findings indicate that mothers tend to suffer a moderate wage penalty. We also confine our analysis to sector-specific effects and find that the negative effect may primarily be attributed to mothers working in the public sector. The differences across sectors may be explained by considerable job flexibility and a system of promotion based on work experience which has been adopted in the public sector.

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Shackleton, J.R. (2008): Should We Mind the Gap? Gender Pay Differentials and Public Policy. London

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European Commission (2007): Remuneration of Researchers in the Public and Private sectors. Luxembourg

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Beblo, Miriam et al. (2006): The wage effects of entering motherhood. A within-firm matching approach. IAB Discussion Paper * 13/2006. Nürnberg

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Achatz, Juliane; Gartner, Hermann; Glück, Timea (2004): IAB discussion paper: Bonus oder Bias? Mechanismen geschlechtsspezifischer Entlohnung.

Abstract: In welchem Ausmaß ist das Lohngefälle zwischen vollzeitbeschäftigten Frauen und Männern auf Produktivitätsunterschiede zurückzuführen? Welchen Anteil hat die Diskriminierung von Arbeitnehmerinnen und wie wirken sich betriebliche Merkmale auf die Lohnunterschiede aus? Diese Fragen werden mit einem verbundenen Personen- und Betriebsdatensatz des Instituts für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung für das Jahr 2000 in Ost- und Westdeutschland untersucht.

Im Mittelpunkt steht die Frage, wie sich die Geschlechterzusammensetzung von Berufsgruppen in Betrieben (Jobzellen) auf die Lohnhöhe auswirkt. Wie sich nach einer ökonometrischen Untersuchung zeigt, kann nur etwa ein Zehntel der Lohnlücke zwischen Frauen und Männern durch die Unterschiede im gemessenen Humankapitalbestand erklärt werden. Mit steigendem Frauenanteil in den Jobzellen sinken die Löhne, wobei die Lohnabschläge von Frauen höher ausfallen als die von Männern. Diskriminierung, so die Folgerung, greift insbesondere bei der geschlechtsbasierten Zuweisung von Arbeitsplätzen. Mit dem Vorhandensein von Betriebsräten steigen die Löhne, was vorrangig den beschäftigten Frauen zu Gute kommt.

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Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend (Hg.) (2002): Dokumentation Internationale Konferenz Equal Pay. Modelle und Initiativen zur Entgeltgleichheit. Berlin