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Azoulay, Pierre, and Freda B. Lynn. 2020. “SelfCitation, Cumulative Advantage, and Gender Inequality in Science.” Sociological Science 7: 152-186. 

In science, self-citation is often interpreted as an act of self-promotion that (artificially) boosts the visibility of one’s prior work in the short term, which could then inflate professional authority in the long term. Recently, in light of research on the gender gap in self-promotion, two large-scale studies of publications examine if women self-cite less than men. But they arrive at conflicting conclusions; one concludes yes whereas the other, no. We join the debate with an original study of 36 cohorts of life scientists (1970–2005) followed through 2015 (or death or retirement). We track not only the rate of self-citation per unit of past productivity but also the likelihood of self-citing intellectually distant material and the rate of return on self-citations with respect to a host of major career outcomes, including grants, future citations, and job changes. With comprehensive, longitudinal data, we find no evidence whatsoever of a gender gap in self-citation practices or returns. Men may very well be more aggressive self-promoters than women, but this dynamic does not manifest in our sample with respect to self-citation practices. Implications of our null findings are discussed, particularly with respect to gender inequality in scientific careers more broadly.

Fox, Mary Frank, Nikivincze, Irina. Being highly prolific in academic science: characteristics of individuals and their departments. High Educ (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-020-00609-z

The prolific (exceptionally high producers of scholarly publications) are strategic to the study of academic science. The highly prolific have been drivers of research activity and impact and are a window into the stratification that exists. For these reasons, we address key characteristics associated with being highly prolific. Doing this, we take a socialorganizational approach and use distinctive survey data on both social characteristics of scientists and features of their departments, reported by US faculty in computer science, engineering, and sciences within eight US research universities. The findings point to a telling constellation of hierarchical advantages: rank, collaborative span, and favorable work climate. Notably, once we take rank into account, gender is not associated with being prolific. These findings have implications for understandings of being prolific, systems of stratification, and practices and policies in higher education.

Anna Severin, Joao Martins, Rachel Heyard, François Delavy, Anne Jorstad, Matthias Egger.2020. Gender and other potential biases in peer review: cross-sectional analysis of 38 250 external peer review reports. BMJ Open;10:e035058. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035058

OBJECTIVES. To examine whether the gender of applicants and peer reviewers and other factors influence peer review of grant proposals submitted to a national funding agency.
SETTING. Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF).
DESIGN.Cross-sectional analysis of peer review reports submitted from 2009 to 2016 using linear mixed effects regression models adjusted for research topic, applicant's age, nationality, affiliation and calendar period.
PARTICIPANTS. External peer reviewers.
PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE. Overall score on a scale from 1 (worst) to 6 (best).
RESULTS. Analyses included 38 250 reports on 12 294 grant applications from medicine, architecture, biology, chemistry, economics, engineering, geology, history, linguistics, mathematics, physics, psychology and sociology submitted by 26 829 unique peer reviewers. In univariable analysis, male applicants received more favourable evaluation scores than female applicants (+0.18 points; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.23), and male reviewers awarded higher scores than female reviewers (+0.11; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.15). Applicant-nominated reviewers awarded higher scores than reviewers nominated by the SNSF (+0.53; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.56), and reviewers from outside of Switzerland more favourable scores than reviewers affiliated with Swiss institutions (+0.53; 95% CI 0.49 to 0.56). In multivariable analysis, differences between male and female applicants were attenuated (+0.08; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.13) whereas results changed little for source of nomination and affiliation of reviewers. The gender difference increased after September 2011, when new evaluation forms were introduced (p=0.033 from test of interaction).
CONCLUSIONS. Peer review of grant applications at SNSF might be prone to biases stemming from different applicant and reviewer characteristics. The SNSF abandoned the nomination of peer reviewers by applicants. The new form introduced in 2011 may inadvertently have given more emphasis to the applicant's track record. We encourage other funders to conduct similar studies, in order to improve the evidence base for rational and fair research funding.

Colwell, Rita; Bear, Ashley; Helman, Alex, Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine, 2020. 

Careers in science, engineering, and medicine offer opportunities to advance knowledge, contribute to the well-being of communities, and support the security, prosperity, and health of the United States. But many women do not pursue or persist in these careers, or advance to leadership positions - not because they lack the talent or aspirations, but because they face barriers, including: implicit and explicit bias; sexual harassment; unequal access to funding and resources; pay inequity; higher teaching and advising loads; and fewer speaking invitations, among others.

There are consequences from this underrepresentation of women for the nation as well: a labor shortage in many science, engineering, and medical professions that cannot be filled unless institutions and organizations recruit from a broad and diverse talent pool; lost opportunities for innovation and economic gain; and lost talent as a result of discrimination, unconscious bias, and sexual harassment.

Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine reviews and synthesizes existing research on policies, practices, programs, and other interventions for improving the recruitment, retention, and sustained advancement into leadership roles of women in these disciplines. This report makes actionable recommendations to leverage change and drive swift, coordinated improvements to the systems of education, research, and employment in order to improve both the representation and leadership of women.


van den Besselaar, Peter; Sandström, Ulf; PloS one, DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0183301, Vol. 12, No. 8, p. e0183301 (2017)

It is often argued that female researchers publish on average less than male researchers do, but male and female authored papers have an equal impact. In this paper we try to better understand this phenomenon by (i) comparing the share of male and female researchers within different productivity classes, and (ii) by comparing productivity whereas controlling for a series of relevant covariates. The study is based on a disambiguated Swedish author dataset, consisting of 47,000 researchers and their WoS-publications during the period of 2008-2011 with citations until 2015. As the analysis shows, in order to have impact quantity does make a difference for male and female researchers alike-but women are vastly underrepresented in the group of most productive researchers. We discuss and test several possible explanations of this finding, using a data on personal characteristics from several Swedish universities. Gender differences in age, authorship position, and academic rank do explain quite a part of the productivity differences.

O’Connor, Pat; Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, DOI 10.1080/1360080X.2014.884675, Vol. 36, No. 2, p. 212–224 (2014)

In this article, the focus is on understanding the success of one university in increasing the proportion of women at professorial level from zero in 1997 to 34 per cent in 2012, considerably above the averages for Irish, European Union and Australian universities. Using a concept of leadership ‘as a process of influence’ and drawing on both documentary and experiential evidence, it identifies four stages and key factors in that transition, including the situational context of a new university; positional and informal leadership; increased transparency and the prioritisation of disciplines with high levels of professorial posts and where the appointment of women was structurally more likely. It illustrates the extent of the change that can occur, even in intractable areas such as the university professoriate. Such change is neither inevitable nor permanent.

Elsevier (2020)

Key findings

The number of women to men among all authors is moving closer to being equal (Source: Scopus data in The researcher journey through a gender lens, Elsevier, 2020)While overall the representation of women in research is increasing, inequality remains. Data show where effort is still needed to ensure equality for women in terms of publication outputs, citations, awarded grants, and collaborations.

Research participation

In all countries studied and the EU28, the ratio of women to men among all authors was closer to parity during a recent 5-year period compared with a decade ago. Men are more highly represented among authors with a long publication history while women are highly represented among authors with a short publication history.

Research footprint

On average, women researchers author fewer publications than men in every country, regardless of authorship position. The least difference in the number of publications by women compared to men is observed among first authors, and the biggest difference is observed among all authors. Among first authors, the average citation impact of men is higher than that of women, suggesting gender bias in citation practice.
The greatest increase in the proportion of women among authors is seen in nursing and psychology, and the smallest increase is in the physical sciences. (Source: Scopus data in The researcher journey through a gender lens, Elsevier, 2020)

Publishing careers and mobility

The percentage of women among all authors in the cohort declines over time (between the year of authors’ first publication in 2009 up to 2018) in all countries and regions except Portugal. In every country, the percentage of women who continue to publish is lower than men who continue to publish.

Collaboration networks

Across many subject areas and countries, men tend to have more co-authors than women and this difference is wider for authors with a longer publication history. Women and men are more similar in the way they are connected to their potential collaborative space (second-order collaborators) through their direct collaborators.

Researcher perspectives

Researcher attitudes towards gender diversity and equity vary widely among men and women. Most of the differences in viewpoints are related to the importance in individual places on gender balance and to the perception of fairness in the academic system.

Survey question

Survey response to the statement: "In my organization, women have to perform better than men to be considered good at their job," by gender and subject area.Survey response to the statement: "In my organization, women have to perform better than men to be considered good at their job," by gender and subject area.

There are two opposing opinions on the causes of gender imbalance and inequality in academia. Some groups (men and women) attribute gender inequality to the attitudes and ambition levels of women. Other groups attribute gender inequality to a systemic and cultural (unconscious) bias against women.

Flaherty, Kevin (2018)

The transition between receiving a PhD and securing a tenure track faculty position is challenging for nearly every astronomer interested in working in academia. Here we use a publicly available database of recently hired faculty (the Astrophysics Job Rumor Mill) to examine the amount of time astronomers typically spend in this transitory state. Using these data as a starting point to examine the experiences of astronomy postdocs, we find that the average time spent between receiving a PhD and being hired into a faculty position is 4.9±0.3 years, with female astronomers hired on average 4.2±0.4 years after receiving a PhD while male astronomers are typically hired after 5.3±0.4 years. Using a simple model of the labor market, we attempt to recreate this gendered difference in time spent as a postdoc. We can rule out the role of the increasing representation of women among astronomy PhDs, as well as any bias in favor of hiring female astronomers in response to efforts to diversify the faculty ranks. Instead the most likely explanation is that female astronomers are leaving the academic labor market, at a rate that is 3-4 times higher than male astronomers. This scenario explains the distinct hiring time distributions between male and female astronomers, as well as the measured percentage of female assistant professors, and the fraction of female applicants within a typical faculty search. These results provide evidence that more work needs to be done to support and retain female astronomers during the postdoctoral phase of their careers.

Cech, Erin A.; Blair-Loy, Mary; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, DOI 10.1073/pnas.1810862116, Vol. 116, No. 10, p. 4182–4187 2019

The gender imbalance in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields has remained constant for decades and increases the farther up the STEM career pipeline one looks. Why does the underrepresentation of women endure? This study investigated the role of parenthood as a mechanism of gender-differentiated attrition from STEM employment. Using a nationally representative 8-year longitudinal sample of US STEM professionals, we examined the career trajectories of new parents after the birth or adoption of their first child. We found substantial attrition of new mothers: 43% of women leave full-time STEM employment after their first child. New mothers are more likely than new fathers to leave STEM, to switch to part-time work, and to exit the labor force. These gender differences hold irrespective of variation by discipline, race, and other demographic factors. However, parenthood is not just a "mother's problem"; 23% of new fathers also leave STEM after their first child. Suggesting the difficulty of combining STEM work with caregiving responsibilities generally, new parents are more likely to leave full-time STEM jobs than otherwise similar childless peers and even new parents who remain employed full time are more likely than their childless peers to exit STEM for work elsewhere. These results have implications for policymakers and STEM workforce scholars; whereas parenthood is an important mechanism of women's attrition, both women and men leave at surprisingly high rates after having children. Given that most people become parents during their working lives, STEM fields must do more to retain professionals with children.

Nielsen, Mathias Wullum, GENDER WORK AND ORGANIZATION, DOI 10.1111/gwao.12151, Vol. 24, No. 2, p. 134–155 (2017)

This study provides a contemporary case for exploring the assumed ‘opt out’ phenomenon among early-career female researchers. Based on rich data material from a Danish case-study, we adopt an integrated, holistic perspective on women’s reasons for leaving the academy. We propose the concept of ‘adaptive decisionmaking’ as a useful analytical starting-point for synthesising structure- and agency centred perspectives on academic career choices. Our study provides new insights on the myriad of structural and cultural conditions circumscribing the career ambitions and expectations of younger female (and male) researchers, at a critical transition point epitomised by high demands for scholarly productivity, international mobility and accumulation of social capital. Located within the context of Danish higher education, our study also adds to the current discussion of why academic gender stratifications persist in a country renowned for its leading international position on issues of societal gender equality.

Hernandez, Paul R.; Bloodhart, Brittany; Barnes, Rebecca T.; Adams, Amanda S.; Clinton, Sandra M.; Pollack, Ilana; Godfrey, Elaine; Burt, Melissa; Fischer, Emily V.; PloS one, DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0187531, Vol.12, No. 11, p. e0187531 (2017)

Women are underrepresented in a number of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Limited diversity in the development of the STEM workforce has negative implications for scientific innovation, creativity, and social relevance. The current study reports the first-year results of the PROmoting Geoscience Research, Education, and SuccesS (PROGRESS) program, a novel theory-driven informal mentoring program aimed at supporting first- and second-year female STEM majors. Using a prospective, longitudinal, multi-site (i.e., 7 universities in Colorado/Wyoming Front Range & Carolinas), propensity score matched design, we compare mentoring and persistence outcomes for women in and out of PROGRESS (N = 116). Women in PROGRESS attended an off-site weekend workshop and gained access to a network of volunteer female scientific mentors from on- and off-campus (i.e., university faculty, graduate students, and outside scientific professionals). The results indicate that women in PROGRESS had larger networks of developmental mentoring relationships and were more likely to be mentored by faculty members and peers than matched controls. Mentoring support from a faculty member benefited early-undergraduate women by strengthening their scientific identity and their interest in earth and environmental science career pathways. Further, support from a faculty mentor had a positive indirect impact on women's scientific persistence intentions, through strengthened scientific identity development. These results imply that first- and second- year undergraduate women's mentoring support networks can be enhanced through provision of protégé training and access to more senior women in the sciences willing to provide mentoring support.

Ivancheva, Mariya; Lynch, Kathleen; Keating, Kathryn; GENDER WORK AND ORGANIZATION, DOI 10.1111/gwao.12350, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 139 2019

This article examines the rise in precarious academic employment in Ireland as an outcome of the higher education restructuring following OECD (Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development), government initiatives and post‐crisis austerity. Presenting the narratives of academic women at different career stages, we claim that a focus on care sheds new light on the debate on precarity. A more complete understanding of precarity should take account not only of the contractual security but also affective relational security in the lives of employees. The intersectionality of paid work and care work lives was a dominant theme in our interviews among academic women. In a globalized academic market, premised on the care‐free masculinized ideals of competitive performance, 24/7 work and geographical mobility, women who opt out of these norms, suffer labour‐led contractual precarity and are over‐represented in part‐time and fixed‐term positions. Women who comply with these organizational commands need to peripheralize their relational lives and experience care‐led affective precarity.

Ross, Erin; njobs (Nature), DOI 10.1038/nature.2017.21598 (2017)

‘Leaky pipeline’ stands the test of time, with overall progress for women in research continuing at a crawl.

Berli, Oliver; Reuter, Julia; Hammann, Bernd (2018)

Wie blicken ProfessorInnen auf ihre wissenschaftliche Karriere zurück, wodurch zeichnen sich ihre Qualifizierungswege aus, welche Erfahrungen haben sie mit BetreuerInnen und Vorgesetzten gemacht, und welche Aspekte sind aus ihrer Sicht für die Förderung des Nachwuchses und eine erfolgreiche Laufbahn notwendig? Anhand einer repräsentativen Umfrage unter ProfessorInnen aus Natur-, Wirtschafts- und Geisteswissenschaften in Deutschland gibt die vorliegende Studie, die Teil eines größeren BMBF-Projekts zu „Vertrauen und Wissenschaftlicher Nachwuchs“ ist, Antworten auf diese und andere Fragen und liefert zugleich Denkanstöße für eine Verbesserung der Leistungsfähigkeit des wissenschaftlichen Qualifizierungssystems.

Greider, Carol W.; Sheltzer, Jason M.; Cantalupo, Nancy C.; Copeland, Wilbert B.; Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Hopkins, Nancy; Jansen, Jaclyn M.; Joshua-Tor, Leemor; McDowell, Gary S.; Metcalf, Jessica L.; McLaughlin, BethAnn; Olivarius, Ann; O'Shea, Erin K.; Raymond, Jennifer L.; Ruebain, David; Steitz, Joan A.; Stillman, Bruce; Tilghman, Shirley M.; Valian, Virginia; Villa-Komaroff, Lydia; Wong, Joyce Y.; Science (New York, N.Y.), DOI 10.1126/science.aaz0649, Vol. 366, No. 6466, p. 692–695 (2019)

Women experience substantial, gender-specific barriers that can impede their advancement in research careers. These include unconscious biases that negatively influence the perception of women's abilities, as well as social and cultural factors like those that lead to an unequal distribution of domestic labor (1, 2). Additionally, sexual and gender-based harassment is a widespread and pernicious impediment to the retention and advancement of women in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)–related fields (3). Although there is substantial evidence documenting systemic barriers that women face in scientific careers, less is known about how research institutions and funding agencies can best address these problems (see references below and in the supplementary materials). We outline here specific, potentially high-impact policy changes that build upon existing mechanisms for research funding and governance and that can be rapidly implemented to counteract barriers facing women in science. These approaches must be coupled to vigorous and continuous outcomes-based monitoring, so that the most successful strategies can be disseminated and widely implemented. Though our professional focus is primarily academic biomedical research in U.S. institutions, we suggest that some of the approaches that we discuss may be broadly useful across STEM disciplines and outside of academia as well.

Huang, Junming; Gates, Alexander J.; Sinatra, Roberta; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo (2019)

There is extensive, yet fragmented, evidence of gender differences in academia suggesting that women are under-represented in most scientific disciplines, publish fewer articles throughout a career, and their work acquires fewer citations. Here, we offer a comprehensive picture of longitudinal gender discrepancies in performance through a bibliometric analysis of academic careers by reconstructing the complete publication history of over 1.5 million gender-identified authors whose publishing career ended between 1955 and 2010, covering 83 countries and 13 disciplines. We find that, paradoxically, the increase of participation of women in science over the past 60 years was accompanied by an increase of gender differences in both productivity and impact. Most surprisingly though, we uncover two gender invariants, finding that men and women publish at a comparable annual rate and have equivalent career-wise impact for the same size body of work. Finally, we demonstrate that differences in dropout rates and career length explain a large portion of the reported career-wise differences in productivity and impact. This comprehensive picture of gender inequality in academia can help rephrase the conversation around the sustainability of women's careers in academia, with important consequences for institutions and policy makers.

Gamage, Danula K.; Sevilla, Almudena (2019)

This paper examines the impact of the Athena Scientific Women’s Academic Network (SWAN) Charter on the wages and employment trajectories of female faculty. The Athena SWAN Charter is a gender equality initiative that formally recognises good practice towards the representation and career progression of women in Science, Technology, Engineer, Mathematics, and Medicine (STEMM) through an accreditation process. We find that the gender wage gap closes after Athena SWAN accreditation. However, female faculty at the non-professorial level are not more likely to being promoted to professor after accreditation, or to move to an Athena SWAN accredited university. Taken together these results suggest that the higher wage growth experienced by female non-professorial faculty after Athena SWAN accreditation is likely to come from pay rises within a particular rank.

Cohen, Scott; Hanna, Paul; Higham, James; Hopkins, Debbie; Orchiston, Caroline; Gender Work & Org (Gender, Work & Organization) DOI 10.1111/gwao.12413, Vol. 46, No. 2, p. 411 (2019)

Despite increasing geographic mobility among academic staff, gendered patterns of involvement in academic mobility have largely escaped scrutiny. Positioned within literatures on internationalization, physical proximity, gender and parenthood in academic mobility and understandings of gender as a process enacted through both discursive and embodied practices, we use discourse analysis based on interviews with academics in New Zealand to examine differences in language that create differing realities with regards to gender and obligations of care in academic mobility decisions. The findings reveal how academic mobility is discursively formulated as ‘essential’ to successful academic careers, with the need for frequent travel justified despite advances in virtual communication technologies. Heteronormative discourses are shown to disrupt and fragment the opportunities female academics have to engage in academic mobility. However, we also uncover ways in which these discourses are resisted, wherein fathers articulate emotional strain associated with academic mobility. The article shows how discourse works to constitute the essentialization of academic mobility, and the uneven gendered practices associated with it, whilst also giving voice to gender inequities in academic mobility from the southern hemisphere.

Reichelt, Malte (2018)

Der Lohnunterschied zwischen Männern und Frauen ist in Deutschland noch immer groß. Betriebliche Maßnahmen zur Förderung der Chancengleichheit von Frauen und Männern und formalisierte Personalprozesse sollen dazu beitragen, diese Kluft zu verringern und faire Löhne sicherzustellen. Dabei zeigt sich: Im Niedriglohnbereich wirken diese Maßnahmen zwar durchaus. Sie tragen aber kaum dazu bei, die „gläserne Decke“ für Frauen zu durchbrechen.

Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, DOI 10.1073/pnas.1422822112, Vol. 112, No. 16, p. 4988–4993 (2015)

For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery.

Beaufaÿs, Sandra; Löther, Andrea; WSI-Mitteilungen, Nr. 5, S. 348-355 (2017)

Die Anzahl befristet beschäftigter qualifizierter Forscherinnen und Forscher steigt, während die Zahl der Professuren mehr oder weniger stagniert. Die davon ausgehenden Wirkungen auf Wissenschaftskarrieren sind im Hinblick auf das Geschlechterverhältnis aktuell besonders brisant. Wissenschaftlerinnen sind von den gewandelten Bedingungen in stärkerem Maße betroffen als Wissenschaftler. Der Beitrag betrachtet anhand von quantitativen und qualitativen Daten, welche geschlechtsspezifischen Ungleichheiten in den Beschäftigungsbedingungen bestehen und wie diese sich auch in der Exzellenzinitiative abbilden und auswirken. Aufgrund ihrer Gleichstellungsabsicht bietet die Exzellenzinitiative durchaus attraktive Arbeitsbedingungen für Frauen, doch sind Wissenschaftlerinnen durch die allgemein ungleichen Chancen, die u. a. durch Beschäftigungsbedingungen entstehen, auch im Rahmen von Exzellenzeinrichtungen weiterhin benachteiligt. Da die Ausstiegsgründe des wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses insbesondere in der geringen Planbarkeit wissenschaftlicher Karrieren liegen und Frauen mit diesem Aspekt besonders unzufrieden sind, ist ein kritischer Blick auf die Beschäftigungspolitik an Universitäten angezeigt – auch und gerade im Kontext von Exzellenzeinrichtungen.

The number of qualified researchers in fixed-term positions has been growing, while at the same time the number of professors has remained more or less stable. This mismatch is especially challenging in terms of gender relations. Changing career and working conditions affect women scientists to a much greater degree than their male colleagues. Based on quantitative and qualitative data, the article explores gender specific inequalities of employment conditions and the persistence of these inequalities in the German “Excellence Initiative”. This prestigious research funding programme is aimed at promoting gender equality and it does offer attractive working conditions for women scientists. However, women suffer disadvantages even in funded institutions because the employment conditions lead to unequal opportunities. The uncertain predictability of an academic career is one of the main reasons for leaving the scientific career track and it is women who are especially dissatisfied with this aspect. Thus, a critical appraisal of the employment policies of universities is necessary, especially in the context of the “Excellence Initiative”.

Li, Weihua; Aste, Tomaso; Caccioli, Fabio; Livan, Giacomo; Nature communications, DOI 10.1038/s41467-019-13130-4, Vol. 10, No. 1, p. 5170 (2019)

We examined the long-term impact of coauthorship with established, highly-cited scientists on the careers of junior researchers in four scientific disciplines. Here, using matched pair analysis, we find that junior researchers who coauthor work with top scientists enjoy a persistent competitive advantage throughout the rest of their careers, compared to peers with similar early career profiles but without top coauthors. Such early coauthorship predicts a higher probability of repeatedly coauthoring work with top-cited scientists, and, ultimately, a higher probability of becoming one. Junior researchers affiliated with less prestigious institutions show the most benefits from coauthorship with a top scientist. As a consequence, we argue that such institutions may hold vast amounts of untapped potential, which may be realised by improving access to top scientists.

LERU (2019)

Researchers’ career pathways can be varied, interesting employment opportunities inside and outside of academia are plentiful, and universities do and should prepare researchers well for a multitude of job destinations and roles in society. These are three core ideas in the “Delivering Talent” paper. Enriched with research evidence as well as innovative practice from HR policies and skills training programmes for researchers at LERU universities and elsewhere, the paper shows how universities and supervisors can strengthen career development and support with information, guidance and training. The paper ends with a set of seven high-level recommendations for universities, researchers and research stakeholders.

Klee, Doris; Wolf, Nathalie; Aye, Manuela; Kreisel, Hannah; Feldmann, Katrin; (2019)

This white paper records the current status of gender equality and diversity at universities of S&T and reports and clarifies recommendations for HR professionals and change agents, university leaders as well as national and international policymakers in order to further promote gender equality and diversity, so that access to and participation in S&T will become possible for all irrespective of their background. The statements and recommendations are based on the findings of the second Equality Survey 2018 among our Members.

Sieverding, Monika; Eib, Constanze; Neubauer, Andreas B.; Stahl, Thomas; PloS one (2018), DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0202728, Vol. 13, No. 8

Do lifestyle preferences contribute to the remaining gender gap in higher positions in academia with highly qualified women-especially those with children-deliberately working fewer hours than men do? We tested the "mothers work less" hypothesis in two samples of early career researchers employed at universities in Germany (N = 202) and in the US (N = 197). Early career researchers in the US worked on average 6.3 hours more per week than researchers in Germany. In Germany, female early career researchers with children had drastically reduced work hours (around 8 hours per week) compared to male researchers with children and compared to female researchers without children, whereas we found no such effect for U.S. researchers. In addition, we asked how long respondents would ideally want to work (ideal work hours), and results revealed similar effects for ideal work hours. Results support the "mothers work less" hypothesis for German but not for U.S. early career researchers.

Rosser, Sue V.; Barnard, Sarah; Carnes, Molly; Munir, Fehmidah; The Lancet (2019), DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33213-6, Vol. 393, No. 10171, p. 604-608

As educational attainment has increased globally in recent decades, women's participation in higher education (ie, university level or above) has also risen greatly. Although discoveries and practices within science, medicine, and global health have a tremendous effect on women, women's representation as researchers and leaders in these fields continues to lag. This Viewpoint discusses the current situation and interventions of two high income countries: the USA and the UK.
Increasing the pipeline of women receiving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees has not translated to comparable percentages of women in the STEM workforce in either the USA1 or the UK.2 Disaggregated US data show a higher attrition of women throughout their academic careers compared with men, resulting in lower proportions of full female professors—ranging from 10% in engineering to 38% in psychology.1 Further, US universities awarding the majority of research doctoral degrees have fewer full female professors, as well as fewer women at the lower ranks of assistant and associate professors compared with less research intensive institutions. Similar trends are evident in the UK: in 2014–15, women represented 47% of all postgraduate research students and 45% of academic staff, but only 19% of professors in science, engineering, and technology, 23% of all professors, and 29% of senior academic management.2 To address the underrepresentation of women, both the UK and the USA launched initiatives in the early 2000s to advance gender equity in STEM within academic institutions.

MoChridhe, Race; (2019), 

Responding to Jürgen Gerhards’ post on the ecological damage being done by excessive academic travel, Race MoChridhe observes how the financial and social burdens of academic travel add an additional barrier to participation in research and argues that if academia wants to address issues of diversity and equity in research, it must first acknowledge the effects of academic travel culture.

Humbert, Anne Laure; Kelan, Elisabeth K.; Clayton-Hathway, Kate; European Journal of Women's Studies (2019), DOI 10.1177/1350506819857125, Vol. 26, No. 4, p. 447–468

This article examines whether progress in women’s access to decision-making positions is best achieved through increased levels of development or targeted actions. Drawing on European data for the period 2006–2018, the article examines the association between how gender equal a country is and legislated measures such as board quotas with women’s representation on boards. The analysis then explores how this can be nuanced by differentiating between hard sanctions, soft sanctions and codes of governance. It shows that board quotas cannot be relied upon as instruments of progress independently of a contextual environment that is more gender equal. Furthermore, board quotas with hard sanctions work best, followed by codes of governance, particularly when associated with higher gender equality. However, board quotas with soft sanctions are associated with results that are only marginally better than not having any measure in place. The article concludes that for further and faster progress to be made, introducing legislated board quotas shows great potential, though only in combination with striving for a gender equal society and using hard sanctions. The results call for organizations not to lose focus on ‘rights’ at the expense of the more palatable ‘business case’ for board quotas when striving for equality on corporate boards.

Devine, Patricia G.; Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Kaatz, Anna; Sheridan, Jennifer; Carnes, Molly; Journal of experimental social psychology (2017), DOI 10.1016/j.jesp.2017.07.002, Vol. 73, p. 211–215

Addressing the underrepresentation of women in science is a top priority for many institutions, but the majority of efforts to increase representation of women are neither evidence-based nor rigorously assessed. One exception is the gender bias habit-breaking intervention (Carnes et al., 2015), which, in a cluster-randomized trial involving all but two departmental clusters (N = 92) in the 6 STEMM focused schools/colleges at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, led to increases in gender bias awareness and self-efficacy to promote gender equity in academic science departments. Following this initial success, the present study compares, in a preregistered analysis, hiring rates of new female faculty pre- and post-manipulation. Whereas the proportion of women hired by control departments remained stable over time, the proportion of women hired by intervention departments increased by an estimated 18 percentage points (OR = 2.23, dOR = 0.34). Though the preregistered analysis did not achieve conventional levels of statistical significance (p < 0.07), our study has a hard upper limit on statistical power, as the cluster-randomized trial has a maximum sample size of 92 departmental clusters. These patterns have undeniable practical significance for the advancement of women in science, and provide promising evidence that psychological interventions can facilitate gender equity and diversity.

O'Keefe, Theresa; Courtois, Aline, "Gender Work and Organization" (2019), DOI 10.1111/gwao.12346, Vol. 13, No. 1, p. 43

Gender inequality within the university is well documented but proposals to tackle it tend to focus on the higher ranks, ignoring how it manifests within precarious work. Based on data collected as part of a broader participatory action research project on casual academic labour in Irish higher education, the article focuses on the intersection of precarious work and gender in academia. We argue that precarious female academics are non‐citizens of the academy, a status that is reproduced through exploitative gendered practices and evident in formal/legal recognition (staff status, rights and entitlements, pay and valuing of work) as well as in informal dimensions (social and decision‐making power). We, therefore, conclude that any attempts to challenge gender inequality in academia must look downward, not upward, to the ranks of the precarious academics.

Europäische Kommission; "Eine Union der Gleichheit: Strategie für die Gleichstellung der Geschlechter 2020-2025" Mitteilung der Kommission an das Europäische Parlament, den Rat, den Europäischen Wirtschafts- und Sozialausschuss und den Ausschuss der Regionen, COM(2020) 152 final; 2020

Die „Strategie für die Gleichstellung der Geschlechter (2020-2025)“ bildet den Rahmen für die Arbeit der Europäischen Kommission auf dem Gebiet der Gleichstellung der Geschlechter und gibt die politischen Ziele und die wichtigsten Maßnahmen für den Zeitraum 2020-2025 vor. 

Stefanie K. Johnson, David R. Hekman und Elsa T. Chan (2016), If There’s Only One Woman in Your Candidate Pool, There’s Statistically No Chance She’ll Be Hired, Harvard Business Review, April 26th, 2016

Despite the ever-growing business case for diversity, roughly 85% of board members and executives are white men. This doesn’t mean that companies haven’t tried to change. Many have started investing hundreds of millions of dollars on diversity initiatives each year. But the biggest challenge seems to be figuring out how to overcome unconscious biases that get in the way of these well-intentioned programs. We recently conducted research that suggests a potential solution.

Elizabeth Pollitzer, Carthage Smith, Claartje Vinkenburg (2019), Gender in a changing context for STI, in OECD (Ed.) STI Outlook 2018, Paris: OECD Publishing

The under-representation of women in certain areas of science, technology and innovation has long been a concern.  As the benefits of diversity in STI, both in terms of research excellence and relevance, have become clearer most countries have implemented policies to try and address gender equity and with some success.  However, issues such as gender stereotypes and evaluation bias are embedded in research systems and are resistant to simple interventions. Addressing these requires long-term systemic approaches.  Science is undergoing a paradigm shift, driven by both the need to address urgent and complex societal challenges and the effects of digitalisation on research practice. In the transition to this new world it will be critically important to ensure the equitable representation of women at all levels of the scientific enterprise.

Elsevier, Gender in the Global Research Landscape, FEMtech Studienzusammenfassung

Elsevier (2019) Gender in the Global Research Landscape

Gender affects all facets of life and the world of research presents no exception. In this report, Elsevier and experts from around the world examined this issue using large-scale datasets to track various aspects of the global research enterprise over 20 years, 12 comparator countries and regions, and 27 subject areas.

Lentner, Marlene; Berufswahlprozesse junger Frauen: Lebenskonstruktionen weiblicher Lehrlinge im Kontext gesellschaftlicher Wandlungsprozesse. In: Schlögl, Peter (Ed.) ; Stock, Michaela (Ed.) ; Moser, Daniela (Ed.) ; Schmid,Kurt (Ed.) ; Gramlinger, Franz(Ed.): Berufsbildung, eine Renaissance? Motor für Innovation, Beschäftigung, Teilhabe,Aufstieg, Wohlstand,....; Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann Verlag; 2017

Der vorliegende Beitrag widmet sich dem Phänomen der geschlechtsspezifischen Berufswahl und den damit verbundenen Beharrungstendenzen mittels eines Struktur-Handlungsansatzes. Die Berufswahl kann als zweistufiger, komplexer Prozess beschrieben werden, welcher einer praktischen Logik gehorcht. Die zentrale Erklärungskraft der geschlechtsspezifischen Ausrichtung liegt in den geschlechtlichen Arbeitsteilungsmustern und einer Verdinglichung der gesellschaftlichen Verhältnisse begründet.

Joan C. Williams, Katherine W. Phillips, Erika V. Hall (2014): Double Jeopardy? Gender Bias Against Women of Color in Science. 

This report examines whether the four distinct patterns of gender bias that have been documented in experimental social psychologists’ labs reflect what isactually occurring at work for women in the STEM fields, and particularly for women of color. The study documented by this report shows that gender bias exists, and it exists for women of color: 100% of the scientists interviewed reported encountering gender bias at work.

Meyer, Meredith; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Women are underrepresented in fields where success is believed to require brilliance; Frontiers in Psychology 6:235; 2015

Women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a prominent concern in our society and many others. Closer inspection of this phenomenon reveals a more nuanced picture, however, with women achieving parity with men at the Ph.D. level in certain STEM fields, while also being underrepresented in some non-STEM fields. It is important to consider and provide an account of this field-by-field variability. The field-specific ability beliefs (FAB) hypothesis aims to provide such an account, proposing that women are likely to be underrepresented in fields thought to require raw intellectual talent-a sort of talent that women are stereotyped to possess less of than men. In two studies, we provide evidence for the FAB hypothesis, demonstrating that the academic fields believed by laypeople to require brilliance are also the fields with lower female representation. We also found that the FABs of participants with college-level exposure to a field were more predictive of its female representation than those of participants without college exposure, presumably because the former beliefs mirror more closely those of the field's practitioners (the direct "gatekeepers"). Moreover, the FABs of participants with college exposure to a field predicted the magnitude of the field's gender gap above and beyond their beliefs about the level of mathematical and verbal skills required. Finally, we found that beliefs about the importance of brilliance to success in a field may predict its female representation in part by fostering the impression that the field demands solitary work and competition with others. These results suggest new solutions for enhancing diversity within STEM and across the academic spectrum.

Hofbauer, Johanna; Wroblewski, Angela; Equality Challenges in Higher Education: Inhaltliche Dokumentation und Schlussfolgerungen aus der „8th European Conference on Gender Equality in Higher Education“; Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Wirtschaft; Wien, 2015

Die European Conferences on Gender Equality in Higher Education versammeln seit 1998 alle zwei bis drei Jahre hunderte von gleichstellungsverantwortlichen Akteurinnen und Akteure, Wissenschafterinnen und Wissenschafter, Verwaltungsbeamtinnen und -beamte und Regierungsbeamtinnen und -beamte aus unterschiedlichen europäischen und außereuropäischen Ländern.1 Die Konferenzen schaffen ein in dieser Form einzigartiges internationales Forum für die Diskussion und den Austausch von Informationen, Erfahrungen und Forschungsergebnissen aus Universitäten, Hochschulen und außeruniversitären Forschungseinrichtungen.

Im September 2014 fand in Wien die 8th European Conference on Gender Equality in Higher Education statt. Zentrales Anliegen der Veranstaltung war ein gestaltungsorientierter Blick auf die Zukunft: Building Futures – Equality Challenges in Higher Education: Encouraging Theory and Practice Dialogues. Grundlage hierfür war die umfassende Situationsbestimmung von Gleichstellung in der Wissenschaft, vor dem Hintergrund einer beeindruckenden Geschichte von Gleichstellung(-spolitik) – 15 Jahren Gender Mainstreaming in Europa und eine nahezu 20-jährige Geschichte gleichstellungspolitischer Forschung und politischer Auseinandersetzung seit der Weltfrauenkonferenz in Peking. Im Laufe dieser Jahre wurde eine Vielzahl von Gleichstellungsmaßnahmen in der Wissenschaft implementiert. Gleichzeitig prägen Entwicklungen wie Globalisierung und Governancereformen (New Public Management) die Wissenschaftslandschaft und stellen die Gleichstellungspolitik vor neue Herausforderungen.

Matthies, Hildegard (2005): Zwischen Nepotismus und reflexiven Standards - Personalpolitiken und Karrierechancen in der Industrieforschung. Berlin

In dieser Studie wird am Beispiel eines chemisch-pharmazeutischen Industrieunternehmens in Deutschland der Frage nachgegangen, ob ein höherer Grad an Formalisierung und eine an einheitlicheren Regeln orientierte Personalpolitik bestimmte Karrierenachteile von Frauen verringern könnten. Das Ergebnis zeigt, dass die Benachteiligung von Frauen aufgrund negativer Klischees und Stereotype sowie einer männlich geprägten Unternehmenskultur mit paternalistischen Anerkennungs- und Beförderungsstrukturen durch solche Verfahren nur schwer entgegengesetzt werden kann. Nichts desto trotz gibt es Anhaltspunkte, dass die Personalrekrutierung anhand von standardisierten und transparenten Kriterien zur Leistungsbewertung einen gewissen Legitimationsdruck erhalten, wodurch für Frauen zumindest die Thematisierung von Diskriminierung erleichtert wird. 

Hill, Catherine; Corbett, Christian; St. Rose, Andresse (2010): Why So Few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics; AAUW

Der Bericht geht der Frage nach, warum in Zeiten von steigenden Frauenanteilen in Medizin, Jus und BWL so wenige Frauen in naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Studien und Bereichen zu finden sind. Die Forschungsergebnisse präsentieren die immer noch geltenden Gründe für die Blockierung von Frauen in naturwissenschaftlichen oder technologischen Karrieren: Soziökonomische Hintergründe und gesellschaftliche Vorstellungen haben Einfluss auf Ausbildungsentscheidungen.

European Commission (2009): Monitoring progress towards Gender Equality in the Sixth Framework Programme. Synthesis Report. Brussels

Sechs Studien untersuchten im 6. Europäischen Forschungsrahmenprogramm (FP6) aus verschiedenen Perspektiven die Entwicklung der Frauengleichstellung und Partizipation von Wissenschafterinnen sowie die Bedeutung von Genderdimensionen in Forschungsinhalten im FP6. Mit dieser sechsten Studie, dem Synthesis Report, wird eine Zusammenfassung der Schlüsselergebnisse der Berichte präsentiert.

Lipinsky, Anke (Hg.) (2009): Encouragement to Advance: Supporting Women in European Science Careers. Bielefeld

Karriereverläufe von Frauen und Männern in der Wissenschaft unterscheiden sich nach wie vor. Frauen sind in der europäischen Wissenschafts- und Forschungslandschaft in Entscheidungspositionen noch immer unterrepräsentiert, auch wenn die Unterstützung weiblicher Wissenschaftskarrieren ein zentrales Ziel des Science-and-Society Action Plans des 6. Rahmenprogramms der Europäischen Kommission war. Diese Ausgabe der cews.Beiträge sammelt Berichte, Ergebnisse und gibt best pratice Empfehlungen, die in fünf verschiedenen europäischen Projekten zur Stärkung der Chancengleichheit von Frauen und Männern in der Wissenschaft auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen umgesetzt wurden. Alle fünf hatten das gemeinsame Ziel, die 'leaky pipeline' abzudichten.

European Commission (2009): Women in science and technology. Creating sustainable careers. Brussels

Abstract: Dieser Bericht der WiST2 Gruppe (Women in Science and Techology) schließt an den Bericht "Women in Science and Technology: a Business Perspective", der 2006 entstanden ist, an. Damals waren einige Unternehmen an einer weiteren Zusammenarbeit mit Gender-ExpertInnen und der europäischen Kommission zu folgenden Fragestellungen interessiert: Wie können Drop Outs von Frauen aus Forschung und Entwicklung reduziert werden? Und wie kann eine "Work-Life-Balance" in Forschung und Entwicklung gestaltet werden?

In der WiST2 Gruppe hatten mehr Unternehmen als bisher die Gelegenheit teilzunehmen, außerdem wurde die Gruppe um Universitäten erweitert, da der Ausstieg der Frauen aus Forschung und Entwicklung dort beginnt. Dieser Bericht enthält nun die Ergebnisse der Zusammenarbeit in der WiST2 Gruppe - er analysiert die Work-Life-Balance-Strategien, die Unternehmen umgesetzt haben um Drop Outs von Frauen zu verhindern.

Funken, Christiane et al. (2008): careers@communication: Digitalisierte Kommunikation in Unternehmen - Karrierehindernis oder Karrierechance für Frauen? Berlin

Dass der Einsatz von IuK-Technologien Kommunikationsformen und Arbeitsabläufe verändert, ist hinlänglich bekannt. Inwiefern dadurch allerdings die hierarchischen Geschlechterverhältnisse in Unternehmen destabilisiert oder aber verfestigt werden, ist bislang weder gefragt noch empirisch untersucht worden. Das Forschungsprojekt careers@communication ist dieser Frage in großen österreichischen Unternehmen nachgegangen. Es sind quantitative wie qualitative Daten erhoben worden, die darauf hinweisen, dass Technologien zwar in die innerbetrieblichen Arbeits- und Kommunikationsprozesse transformierend eingreifen, dass diese Veränderungen allerdings auf tradierten Mustern geschlechtsspezifischer Arbeitsteilung aufsetzen und diese tendenziell verstärken. Denn die Informatisierung von Arbeit und Kommunikation verschärft die Polarisierung von Tätigkeiten in Unternehmen. Während bei Tätigkeiten mit strukturierendem und gestaltendem Charakter, wie sie ab einer bestimmten hierarchischen Position die Regel sind, der Computer in erster Linie als Hilfsmittel genutzt wird und ein Großteil der Arbeit nach wie vor in der Interaktion mit anderen Personen besteht, werden Tätigkeiten mit ausführendem oder zuarbeitendem Charakter nahezu ausschließlich am Computer ausgeübt. Das hat gravierende Konsequenzen für die betroffenen Beschäftigten, die in den beteiligten Unternehmen in erster Linie Frauen sind - wohingegen Männer mehrheitlich in Positionen mit Führungsverantwortung arbeiten und zudem weitaus früher und schneller in der Unternehmenshierarchie aufsteigen. 

European Commission (Ed.) (2008): Mapping the maze: Getting more women to the top in research. Luxembourg 

Dass die Erfolgschancen wissenschaftlicher Karrieren für Frauen in einem groben Missverhältnis zu jenen der Männer stehen, wird durch einen aktuellen Bericht der europäischen Kommission (European Commission 2008) für die europäische Forschungsregion bestätigt. Eine unabhängige ExpertInnengruppe stellt darin fest, dass Transparenz und Gleichbehandlung in Auswahlverfahren entlang der wissenschaftlichen Karrierestufen nicht ausreichen, um die Ungleichheiten zwischen Frauen und Männern abzubauen. Als Notwendigkeit wird vielmehr ein Wandel der Wissenschaftskultur gefordert, um Chancengleichheit im Wissenschaftsbetrieb zu ermöglichen. Aufbauend auf einer Analyse der aktuellen Situation werden im zweiten Teil Empfehlungen gegeben, welche dazu beitragen, Frauen in das Arbeitsfeld Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie - vor allem in die Spitzenpositionen - künftig besser zu integrieren.

Ihsen, Susanne (2008): VDI-Bericht: Ingenieurinnen und Ingenieure im Spannungsfeld zwischen Beruf, Karriere und Familie. München

Die vorliegende Studie des VDI beleuchtet das Spannungsfeld zwischen Karriere und Familie, in dem sich (angehende) ingenieurwissenschaftliche Führungskräfte bewegen. In einem qualitativen und einem quantitativen Studienteil wurden Absolvent/innen ingenieurwissenschaftlicher Studiengänge, Führungskräfte und Unternehmen befragt. Aus den Aussagen der Gruppen wurde ermittelt, welche Angebote sie sich von Unternehmen wünschen und welche sie bereits bekommen. Zum Abschluss der Studie wurden Handlungsempfehlungen für Unternehmen, (angehende) Führungskräfte und die Politik entwickelt, um die Vereinbarkeit von Karriere und Familie für Männer und Frauen, aber auch für Unternehmen zu verbessern.

Coverbild der Studie

OECD (2006): Women in Scientific Careers. Unleashing the Potential. Paris

Abstract: Frauen haben wichtige Beiträge zu Forschung und Innovation in den OECD Ländern geleistet, jedoch ist ihr Potential nachwievor deutlich unerschlossen. Trotzdem Frauen mehr als die Hälfte der Universitätsabsolventen in mehreren OECD Ländern stellen, erhalten sie nur 30% der tertiären Ausbildungsgrade im Bereich der Natur- und Ingenieurswissenschaften. Nicht überraschend ist es damit, dass Frauen nur 25% bis 35% der Forschenden in den meisten OECD Ländern stellen. Das größte "gender gap" weisen Japan, Korea, Österreich und die Schweiz auf. Der "gender gap" ist kleiner in der Slowakei, Griechenland, Portugal, Spanien und Neuseeland. Forscherinnen finden sich überwiegend in den Bereichen wie Biologie, Gesundheit, Landwirtschaft, Pharmazie, in geringerem Ausmaßen in Physik, Computer- und Ingenieurswissenschaften. Diese Publikation stellt die Ergebnisse eines internationalen Workshops zur Abschätzung der Ursachen der niedrigen Beteiligung von Frauen an wissenschaftlichen Karrieren, speziell in gehobenen Positionen, dar sowie eine Zusammenfassung von good-practice Beispielen, um Frauen dauerhaft zu wissenschaftlichen Karrieren im privaten und öffentlichen Forschungsbereich zu motivieren. 

FEMtech (Hg.) (2006): Role Models. Europäische Expertinnen in der industriellen Forschung. Wien

Im Auftrag von FEMtech erstellte die Österreichische Gesellschaft für Umwelt und Technik (ÖGUT) die Broschüre Role Models 2006.

Lind, Inken; Löther, Andrea (2006): Juniorprofessuren in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Ein Vergleich der Qualifikationswege Juniorprofessur und C1-Assistentenstelle. Bonn

Welche gleichstellungspolitischen Wirkungen haben Juniorprofessuren im Vergleich zu dem bisherigen Qualifikationsweg zu einer Professur? Neue Erkenntnisse wurden durch einen Vergleich der beiden wichtigsten Qualifikationswege für eine Professur, die Juniorprofessur und die Beschäftigung als C1-Assistent/in, sowie durch einen konsequenten Geschlechtervergleich erwartet. Zentraler Focus ist dabei, ob und inwieweit bei den beiden zu untersuchenden Qualifikationswegen Strukturen und Hindernisse im Wissenschaftsbetrieb geschlechtsspezifisch unterschiedlich wirksam werden. 

Enders, Jürgen; Mugabushaka, Alexis-Michel (2004): Wissenschaft und Karriere. Erfahrungen und Werdegänge ehemaliger Stipendiaten der DFG. Bonn

Die Förderung des wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses ist für die Erneuerungs- und Innovationsfähigkeit des Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsstandortes Deutschland von herausragender Bedeutung. Besonders qualifizierte junge Nachwuchswissenschaftler nach der Promotion durch geeignete Fördermöglichkeiten in ihrer weiteren wissenschaftlichen Entwicklung zu unterstützen, ist seit ihren Anfängen ein Anliegen der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Jedoch fehlen über die Erfahrungen der von der DFG geförderten Stipendiaten, über ihre weiteren Werdegänge und Erfolge verlässliche Informationen und Analysen. Der besondere Stellenwert der postdoktoralen Nachwuchsförderung der DFG einerseits und die unbefriedigende Informationslage in diesem Bereich anderseits veranlasste die DFG, eine Studie in Auftrag zu geben, die die weiteren Werdegänge und Erfolge der von der DFG geförderten Nachwuchswissenschaftler und -wissenschaftlerinnen untersucht. Das zentrale Ziel der von Jürgen Enders (Center for Higher Education Policy Studies, Universität Twente, Niederlande) und Alexis-Michel Mugabushaka (Wissenschaftliches Zentrum für Berufs- und Hochschulforschung, Universität Kassel) durchgeführten Studie war, tragfähige Daten und Analysen vorzulegen, die Auskunft über den wissenschaftlichen und beruflichen Werdegang der ehemaligen Stipendiaten und deren Einschätzung der Stipendienförderung geben. Ferner sollten aus den Erfahrungen und Erfolgen der Geförderten Anregungen abgeleitet werden, die für die Qualitätssicherung und Weiterentwicklung der Nachwuchsförderung genutzt werden können.

Coverbild der Studie

Pylkkänen, Elina; Smith, Nina (2003): Career Interruptions due to Parental Leave: A Comparative Study of Denmark and Sweden. In: Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs (Ed.): OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers No. 1. Paris

Elternurlaub wird assoziert mit hohen weiblichen Beschäftigungsraten, aber auch mit einer relativen Verringerung der Gehältern von Frauen sofern der Elternurlaub länger andauert. Wenn Väter längere Elternurlaube nehmen würden, würde das nun die Karriereunterbrechungen von Frauen verkürzen? Dafür wurde die Familienpolitik in Dänemark und Schweden analysiert, zwei Staaten mit der gleichen Wohlfahrtsideologie, aber sehr unterschiedlicher Familienpolitik. Im Vergleich zu Dänemark sind die Angebote in Schweden viel großzügiger, sowohl was die Bezahlung als ihre Dauer anbelangt, sie erlauben flexiblen Gebrauch bis zum Alter des Kindes von 8 Jahren. In beiden Ländern ist die Versorgung mit Kinderbetreuungsplätzen hoch, aber ganz kleine Kinder (0-2 Jahre) werden in Dänemark häufiger in Tagesbetreung gegeben als in Schweden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass ökonomische Anreize das Verhalten der Mütter in beiden Ländern beeinflussen. Trotzdem stellt der Elternurlaub eine wichtige Determinante für das beobachtete Verhalten dar. Die Rolle der Väter differiert ganz deutlich zwischen den beiden Ländern. In Schweden haben Väter viel längere Elternurlaube als in Dänemark. Ein herausstechendes Ergebnis der Politiksimulation ist, dass wenn Vätern längere Elternurlaube gewährt werden, es das Arbeitsangebot von Frauen verstärken würde. In Dänemark wurde ein solcher Substitutionseffekt zwischen den beiden Elternteilen nicht festgestellt.

Godfroy-Genin, Anne-Sophie (Ed.) (2010): Women in Engineering and Technology Research. Berlin-Münster-Wien-Zürich-London

Die Beiträge des Sammelbandes zur Abschlusskonferenz (2007) des europäischen Forschungsprojektes PROMETEA spiegeln die Situation von Frauen (und Männern) in Ingenieurs- und Technikwissenschaften wider. Die Themen reichen von der Auseinandersetzung mit Frauen- und Männerkarrieren über Organisationskulturen und Good Practices bis hin zu neuen inhaltlichen Perspektiven und der Frage der Exzellenz in der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Forschung.

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